What types of shamanism exist today

The typology of shamanism is influenced by how knowledge is transmitted and what the actions of the shaman are directed towards. Depending on the customs of shamanism, the types have slightly changed over time. The four main types are as follows:
Primitive, or familial, shamanism.
Its characteristic is that all family members participate in the rituals, including even the youngest ones. Guests could also be included. There was no special sacredness yet. In his work "Historical Aspects of Shamanism," Pavel Bersnev writes that primitive Chukchi tribes conducted shamanic rituals during hunting holidays. For this purpose, they gathered in a large tent, completely closed off from light, and filled the space with smoke from smoldering coals. The entire family, along with relatives, friends, and guests, totaling 20-25 people, would induce those present into an ecstatic state with cries and the beating of drums.

Clan shamanism.
At this stage, the shaman is already considered a servant of the clan cult. This means that rituals were no longer conducted collectively, but each clan had one person who listened to the spirits and spoke with them.

Individual shamanism.
This branch of clan shamanism emerged when more gifted individuals with strong leadership qualities began to stand out among clan shamans. They took on the responsibility of representing several tribes before the spirits. It is in this type of shamanism that male shamans came to the forefront. With the emergence of individual shamanism, shamanic institutions began to form, traditions and rituals were established, treasured, and passed down to future generations.

Non-lineage shamanism.
This modern version of the cult emerged with the development of metropolises. Such an approach does not require the shaman to be related to the tribal community. Therefore, it is also called neo-shamanism. Carlos Castaneda is considered one of the founders of this movement. Nowadays, neo-shamans can be occultists, psychologists, ethnographers, and religious researchers.

The classification of shamanism doesn't stop here: one of the recently emerged forms is eco-shamanism. But regardless of the names of shamanic movements and their specificities, they are all united by a tendency to synthesize past achievements. We are talking about shamanic techniques of ecstasy, the philosophy of unity, and a careful attitude towards the flora and fauna of the planet.

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